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TY - JOURT1 - Multi-proxy dating of Iceland’s major pre-settlement Katla eruption to 822/3 CEAU - Büntgen, U. We argue for correlation of the 822/3 eruption with a conspicuous sulfur anomaly evident in Greenland ice cores, which follows in the wake of an even larger volcanic signal (circa 818-820 CE) as yet not attributed to a known eruption.

We employ this absolute time-marker to date a subglacial eruption of Katla volcano to late-822/early-823 CE.

Here we use annually resolved radiocarbon (C peak in a subfossil birch tree that was buried by a glacial outburst flood in southern Iceland.

We employ this absolute time marker to date a subglacial eruption of Katla volcano at late 822 CE to early 823 CE.

When properly evaluated, historical documents can yield both qualitative and quantitative information about past climate.

For example, scientists used historical grape harvest dates to reconstruct summer temperatures, between April and September, in Paris from 1370 to 1879.

Another type of proxy data, corals build their hard skeletons from calcium carbonate—a mineral extracted from seawater.

These proxy data are preserved physical characteristics of the environment that can stand in for direct measurements.Paleoclimatologists gather proxy data from natural recorders of climate variability such as tree rings, ice cores, fossil pollen, ocean sediments, corals and historical data.By analyzing records taken from these and other proxy sources, scientists can extend our understanding of climate far beyond the instrumental record.climate proxies are preserved physical characteristics of the past that stand in for direct meteorological measurements and enable scientists to reconstruct the climatic conditions over a longer fraction of the Earth's history.Reliable global records of climate only began in the 1880s, and proxies provide the only means for scientists to determine climatic patterns before record-keeping began.

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